Periodontal disease receding gums in children and adolescents have a high prevalence and the main factor is the accumulation of bacterial biofilm also named as plaque. Its initial stage, manifested in the form of gingivitis, characterized by inflammation of the gingival tissues due to localized irritants, and can be modified by systemic factors, medication use, or poor nutrition. Other symptoms include intense redness and tissue hypertrophy, spontaneous bleeding gums or caused by probing or toothbrushing. Inflammatory reactions can be more worsened as it advances the age of the children.
This framework is often associated with lack of proper dental hygiene habits which favoring the accumulation of plaque. Several factors may contribute to bacterial biofilm accumulation, such as abnormal positioning of the teeth in the arches, poor dental restorations, fixed orthodontic appliances, supragingival calculations, habits such as mouth breathing, trauma and certain pulp conditions.
The severity of gingivitis will depend on the intensity, duration and frequency of local irritants and resistance of oral tissues and can occur in acute or chronic form. Proper maintenance of periodontal tissue through personal and professional care is important in preventing the recurrence of inflammation. In later stages, resulting from the progression itself, the disease can manifest itself in the form of periodontitis, with inflammation also involving all protective and supportive tissues of the teeth characterized by loss of tissue support and alveolar bone. In this case, the situation is not as frequent, but usually associated with acute or chronic nature factors, due to some systemic condition.
The more severe forms of periodontal disease in children are generally familiar with a genetic predisposition to aggressive disease, and treatment may include antibiotics and surgical and non-surgical therapy.
Treatment Regardless of any situation, to maintain the periodontal health is directly related to the defense capability and tissue regeneration. Bacterial biofilm control has been effective in decreasing the prevalence of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. It should be made a regular oral hygiene program and personalized, with individualized training to motivate and perform oral hygiene. Even seven years of age, many children do not have enough coordination to perform proper oral hygiene, brushing and flossing.
So parents should be instructed to perform oral hygiene of children. Periodontal examination with the investigation of insertion loss or radiographic evidence of bone loss should be part of children's routine visit and adolescents to the dentist, so as to be identified various periodontal changes related to patients of young age.